The poultry market in Turkey continues to grow
The poultry sector, of which chicken meat constitutes 99% of the total production, is the main source of protein in the country. The sector faces persistent challenges, including high production costs, heavy dependence on foreign countries for input supplies, low levels of individual consumption, and issues with exports due to political and economic turmoil in neighboring countries.
Chicken meat production in Turkey
In 2021, Turkey produced 2.25 million tons of chicken meat, and 19.3 billion eggs, which is 2.4% less than the previous year due to higher feed prices and culling of flocks after the closure of the Iraqi export market, which reopened to Turkey. Eggs as of mid 2022.
In 2022, despite the increase in feed prices, it is estimated that chicken meat production in Turkey will increase by 10% to 2.46 million tons, mainly due to more efficient supply of hatching eggs and day-old chicks, and increased foreign demand. In 2022, livestock imports increased by 12%, and while most of it was used domestically, 2% of the increase was re-exported as hatching eggs to Iraq and Russia.
In 2023, Turkey’s chicken meat production is expected to rise by 9% to 2.68 million tons due to relatively stable export demand and expected slightly higher domestic consumption.
Feed, especially corn and soybeans
In 2021, Turkey produced 5.5 million tons of broiler feed and 3.7 million tons of feed for layers. The main ingredients used in domestic poultry feed rations are corn and soybeans. While Turkey grows both crops, a large part is imported to meet the demand.
Forest fires, market prices and exports hamper chicken consumption growth
In 2023, consumption of chicken meat is expected to reach 1.7 million tons, which is 5% more than in 2022. In 2022, consumption is expected to reach 1.6 million tons, which is lower than in 2021 due to increased exports, and higher prices The market, the lack of barbecue due to restrictions after the major wildfires in 2021 and the high price of charcoal. In 2021, chicken meat consumption was similar to 2020 levels due to a lack of growth due to Covid-19 measures such as curfews in the spring and movement restrictions in the summer.
A major transit point for poultry trade
While Turkey does not import chicken meat for domestic consumption, the country serves as a major transit point to the Middle East, mostly Iraq (80%) and Syria (20%). However, Turkey imports hatchery eggs, mostly from UK, USA and Canada, and day-old chicks from Germany, UK and USA.
Chicken meat is among the most important animal export products
Poultry meat is among the top 3 animal products exported in Turkey, along with milk cream and seabass. Restrictions imposed by importing countries due to cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Turkey is one of the main negative factors affecting the Turkish poultry export market, as well as political and economic turmoil in neighboring countries, causing uncertainty for exporters that conclude contracts with importing companies.
In 2021, Turkey exported 26% of its total poultry production (98.2% poultry meat; 1.8% turkey meat) with chicken meat exports (excluding paws) amounting to 563,274 metric tons (valued at USD 857 million). In 2022, chicken meat exports are expected to reach 860,000 metric tons, which is 52% more than in 2021 due to strong export demand, especially from Iraq and Iran (until market closing in May 2022). In 2023, it is estimated that Turkish chicken meat exports will increase by 15% to reach 989 thousand metric tons.
In terms of chicken claws, China is a major export market for Turkey, along with Uzbekistan, Thailand, Syria and Iraq.
* This information in the article has been extracted from the USDA GAINS report.